Ska Music: A History and Sound Guide
Music trends are constantly changing, and what was popular one year may be outdated the next. Ska music has stood the test of time as it resurfaces over the years with distinctive instrumentals. In the music world, Ska has a unique place.
We will explore the origins of Ska, the three waves of Ska, what makes the Ska genre so unique, and the Ska artists and bands that have carried this music through the waves.
What Is Ska Music?
Ska music was created in the streets of Jamaica and later, after two revivals and decades of popularity, expanded to other areas of the world. You can hear Ska music everywhere and maybe even at an instant withdrawal casino in Australia.
Ska is a type of urban pop music that first appeared in Jamaica in the late 1950s. It has changed throughout the years, absorbing elements of rocksteady, punk, and reggae.
This distinctive musical genre draws inspiration from Jamaican mento and calypso as well as American jazz, rhythm and blues, and R&B.
This musical style has seen several alterations over history. It doesn’t seem like it will go very soon. Ska, which originated in Jamaica, has three distinct waves.
First Wave Jamaican Ska
The Jamaican music scene in the 1960s was highly influenced by American jazz, rhythm and blues, soul, Ska, and rocksteady. The development of the sound of Ska is credited to Jamaican producer Clement “Coxsone” Dodd. At his recording studio at Studio One, a combination of mento and calypso rhythms were combined with jazz instrumentation to create what would become known as Ska. This sound was further developed into rocksteady when Dodd’s engineer Byron Lee added slower tempos and heavy bass lines to the mix. By 1968, this fusion of styles had fully evolved into reggae, which has since become one of Jamaica’s most famous exports. The influence that first wave Jamaican Ska and rocksteady had on the development of reggae cannot be overstated.
After the second world war, Jamaicans gained access to American music over the radio from stations in New Orleans and Miami. An influx of R&B tunes was coming into the country.
This led to Jamaican producers recording versions of this genre from local artists. These songs were in the style of R&B but held strong influences from traditional Jamaican music styles like mento and calypso.
With these influences, the music took on a new form that moved further away from R&B and became a new genre of music known as Ska. The first Ska bands were born. Ska became the most popular genre in Jamaica by the early 1960s.
Second Wave of Ska
In the 1970s, 2 Tone, a second wave of Ska music, emerged. Ska music was on the increase at the time because of Jamaican immigration to UK.
Punk rock components were combined with the rhythms and melodies of the first wave of Jamaican Ska to produce a faster-paced, higher-energy style of music.
The Specials, a band fronted by Jerry Dammers, were pioneers of the Ska resurgence. In part because Dammers’ record company was called 2 Tone and in part because the band was racially integrated—rare at the time—the band came up with the term 2 Tone for this particular Ska subgenre.
The aim of Ska 2 Tone music was to fight racism in the then Thatcher-led Britain. 2 Tone introduced Ska music to mainstream UK with its iconic Ska sound.
Other notable bands from this time were Madness, Bad Manners, The Selecter, and the Bodysnatchers.
Third Wave Ska Music
Ska music then travelled across the pond. It was only a short time before American bands picked up on 2 Tone and started using Ska in their music.
Most notably, every punk band used Ska elements and blended these two sounds to create Ska-punk music. This third-wave Ska is a distant relative to the original wave Jamaican Ska as the music favoured staples of punk rock.
In the 90s, Ska-punk grew in popularity, with bands like Sublime, and No Doubt appearing on the Billboard 200. You can turn on your favourite music and relax after work by watching TV or reading about hold and win slots.
Musical Characteristics of Ska
Ska music carries distinct rhythms and instrumentation no matter which wave it is from. Staples of Ska music are the bass, guitar, percussion, and vocals. However, what makes Ska music unique is the strong brass section.
The Ska Upstroke With Guitar
Ska music has a specific groove with a bouncing rhythm created by playing in the off beats, called the Ska upstroke. Most Ska music is played in 4/4 time, and the rhythm involves putting an emphasis on beats 2 and 4 in 4/4 time with a quick guitar strum.
Ska-punk has a high-energy style and faster groove, accomplished with an eighth-note Skank rhythm. Read as 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and, with each ‘and’ being a distinct note. This upstroke can be played on other string instruments like the ukulele.
Vocals and Lyrics
During the first wave, Jamaican Ska vocals were quite diverse. In first wave Ska, R&B influences with soulful, melodic delivery could be heard. Groups like the Skatalites used vocals sparingly, and others used a singing style called toasting, where vocals incorporated chants, shouts, rhyming, and interjections.
2 Tone vocals were melodic and energetic, focusing on themes of racial integration, unity, tolerance, and street culture.
During the third wave of Ska music, lyrics had great diversity, with bands like Sublime singing about drug addiction and living in California and others like No Doubt focusing on relationships and life on the road. However, despite the diverse lyrics, the punk influence can be heard in the vocals.
Ska music has a distinct brass section with trombones, and alto saxophones. This section follows the guitar, vocals, hits, and accents or offers a countermelody.
The horns were the backbone of a melody in Jamaican Ska that flowed over the steady beat and guitar upstrokes. The horns were kept in 2 Tone, but the sound was more guitar driven. The horns were then embraced fully during the third wave.
Another hallmark of Ska music is the bassline which can be heard in Jamaican Ska through a bass guitar or double bass. The bassline offers the support needed for Ska songs’ high-energy and fast tempo.
However, in third wave Ska music, bass players moved away from walking basslines to them having a more rapid part.
The first wave Jamaican Ska combined traditional and modern instruments. Tambourines and shakers were often used alongside drums.
The classic Ska rhythm with a full drum kit involved the bass drum on beats 2 and 4, further emphasising the guitar upstroke. The backbeat was further complemented through cross-stick on beats 2 and 4. The drum head of the snare is hit on beat 4, and the beat is rounded out with the eighth note played on the hi-hat.
Piano and organ instrumentation were incorporated during the first wave of Ska music, which either followed the bassline or bubbled along with the guitar. Keyboards would come and go in 2 Tone and the third wave Ska. However, these bands were known for using the organ when looking for a retro sound.
Comparing Ska, Reggae, and Rocksteady Music
Ska music is unique, but there are elements from other genres that have made their way into Ska songs. Ska music led to the emergence of reggae and rocksteady music.
Popular by the end of the 1960s, rocksteady can be considered the next generation of Ska music. These two genres are similar in rhythm. The main difference is the speed at which the beats are played. An Ska song has a high tempo, whereas rocksteady has a slow beat.
In Jamaica, reggae music overtook rocksteady, even though they are similar in terms of the slow beat. Reggae music incorporates more rock instrumentals than brass.
Popular Ska Bands
Ska music has seen a resurgence in popularity over the past few decades, and there are many great bands leading the way. Some of these popular urban pop style bands include:
- Streetlight Manifesto
- No Doubt
- Less Than Jake
- The Specials
- Operation Ivy
Each of these bands offers its own unique take on the classic Ska sound while incorporating elements of punk and reggae. These bands have become immensely popular among fans of all ages who love to dance to the upbeat rhythms and sing along to the often socially conscious lyrics. Whether it’s an old-school band like The Specials or a modern group like Streetlight Manifesto, these bands are sure to keep Ska alive for years to come.
No matter where you look, there is a band of Ska musicians playing their hearts out in hopes of being the next big thing. There are many up-and-coming Ska bands that bring new ideas and sounds to the genre, such as The Interrupters, Rumblers, Skalawags and Big D & The Kids Table. All of these bands offer something unique that keeps fans engaged and energized. For those looking to explore Jamaican folk music, check out traditional Jamaican groups like Toots; The Maytals or contemporary acts like Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra. No matter which way you go with your musical exploration, Ska music is sure to keep you entertained.
Ska’s sound has been around for decades and continues to shape the sound of modern music. Whether it’s a classic rocksteady beat or a more punk-inspired approach, there are plenty of talented bands keeping the Ska spirit alive. From experienced veterans to fresh newcomers, these popular Ska bands will keep fans rocking and dancing for many years to come.
Does Ska Music Exist Today?
Ska classics is a music genre that still popular today despite having seen three distinct waves of immense success from Jamaica to America.
The third wave of Ska led to the rise of Ska-punk bands, some of which are still going strong today. There are brand-new tracks available from groups like The Mighty Mighty Basstones and Reel Big Fish.
Even if Ska music were to ever vanish from the music landscape, history has shown us that it would not take long for it to come back with a vengeance.